Belimo Hydronic Simulator™ is a tool that simulates a hydronic system in a 4-story building with five terminal units on each floor. All terminal units, branches, and the raiser have a manual balancing valve that allows adjusting based on the valve opening. The Simulator identifies and illustrates when the system needs to be balanced and how the adjusting of the valve could impact the entire system. The main purpose of Belimo Hydronic Simulator is to educate on the importance of why pressure dependent valves are not recommended in a dynamic system.
Building codes require the installation of life safety dampers for several purposes. Most are used to prevent the spread of heat, fire, and/or smoke in a life-threatening event. There are four essential types of life safety dampers:
1) Ceiling radiation
4) Combination fire and smoke
Three general applications:
1) Compartmentation to prevent heat, fire or smoke transfer across barriers
2) Smoke control systems to prevent smoke movement within spaces or exhaust to the outside
3) Fire extinguishing or evacuation systems
A craft brewery (microbrewery) produces small batches of beer and usually are independently owned. These breweries emphasize quality, flavor, and unique brewing techniques. The craft brewery movement has grown significantly with some breweries expanding production, distribution, and included tasting rooms.
Tags: Technical Tips
Controlling and monitoring indoor levels of carbon dioxide is essential for everyone’s health, safety, and the energy efficiency of buildings. Similar to how we need to breathe fresh air, so do buildings. Ventilation in a building is the essential process of replacing stale air with fresh air. Without engineered ventilation, buildings become susceptible to stagnant air, mold, bacteria, and potentially harmful gasses like radon, VOCs (volatile organic compounds), and carbon dioxide. Prolonged exposure to these elements can lead to “sick building syndrome” where occupants experience acute health and comfort effects.
HVAC system performance and comfort rely on accurate measurement and control of differential pressure. Effective air distribution is achieved by closely monitoring and controlling air pressure. By monitoring the airflow pressure across dampers, filters, fans, and between rooms, the HVAC system can efficiently and economically optimize building performance and reduce energy consumption.
In a water source heat pump (WSHP) application, a variable or constant speed pump accomplishes water distribution. The primary function of valves in a WSHP application is to allow a predetermined volume of water to enter each unit through either a water-to-refrigerant coil, water-to-air coil, or a water-to-water coil. The valves used are typically on/off control for full design flow when the WSHP starts. In most applications they are not required to control the amount of flow as in a traditional HVAC hydronic system.
Hydronic variable flow systems may reset supply water temperature, pump static pressure, or a combination of both to reduce plant energy consumption and to comply with building codes and standards. The information below illustrates how valve position feedback to the Building Automation System (BAS) is used to reset the pump pressure setpoint in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1 and California Title 24.
District cooling is the centralized production and distribution of cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered from a centralized energy plant through an underground pipeline to commercial, industrial, and residential buildings to air-condition using chilled water. Excess heat is extracted from the building by the air conditioning systems’ heat exchangers. The water is then returned to the central energy plant.
District cooling plants operate to meet the cooling energy demand of their customers, which could be dozens of buildings in a college campus or municipality. District cooling systems offer lower up-front construction costs and eliminate the need for chiller plant maintenance at the building level.
The Belimo Energy Valve is an advanced pressure independent control valve that can drastically reduce the amount of water used to cool or heat a space. By increasing the overall efficiency of the heat transfer, energy savings can be achieved. In addition, the Belimo Energy Valve provides unparalleled transparency to the system and can drastically improve the controllability of complex hydronic systems.
A recent Department of Energy study1 conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated the lost energy savings in small commercial buildings that were not in compliance with the current energy code, in this case, IECC 2012. In energy codes, air economizers are required on most commercial air systems, whether packaged or split system. However, just having an economizer damper and associated control doesn’t result in automatic compliance. There are many subset requirements for economizers today (economizer requirements for details).Although this DOE study focused oncompliance verification, it identified a common problem, 100% of economizer controls reviewed had their high-limit shutoff not in agreement with the setpoints as prescribed by the IECC for climate zone 4C. This is not a new problem.
Tags: Technical Tips