Energy Cost Savings Can Be Achieved Through Better Compliance

Posted on Thu,Oct 20, 2016 @ 09:15 AM

A recent Department of Energy study1 conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated the lost energy savings in small commercial buildings that were not in compliance with the current energy code, in this case, IECC 2012. In energy codes, air economizers are required on most commercial air systems, whether packaged or split system. However, just having an economizer damper and associated control doesn’t result in automatic compliance. There are many subset requirements for economizers today (economizer requirements for details).Capture2.png

Although this DOE study focused oncompliance verification, it identified a common problem, 100% of economizer controls reviewed had their high-limit shutoff not in agreement with the setpoints as prescribed by the IECC for climate zone 4C. This is not a new problem. The California Energy Commission in 2003 identified that 72% of the economizers investigated had improper high-limit shutoff settings. What’s new, PNNL was able to use the US DOE commercial prototype building model to determine energy effectiveness of specific code requirements and lost energy savings for this incorrect setting. Calculations showed that the wrong high limit setting would result in additional electrical usage of $3.56 / ton per year to as much as$14.18 / ton per year. Also highlighted in the report was the difficulty in verifying if the control was set to the correct high-limit shutoff in accordance with energy codes. It was noted that systems often found in small to medium-sized commercial buildings, didn’t meet the size requirements of the IECC to trigger mandatory commissioning. The verifier was well experienced in economizer controls, but still had challenges identifying setting and operation of the installed controls. In this study, thirty minutes of time was attributed to verifying the economizer control setup.

Download the complete study, An Approach to Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings” by Michael Rosenberg, Reid Hart, Rahul Athalye, & Jian Zhang, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, David Cohan, United States Department of Energy. This paper presents the results and many lessons learned on how to increase ourbuilding performance.


In summary, improper setup of an economizer leads to lost savings, and verification to validate the settings is an additional cost. With the ZIP Economizer by BELIMO, just enter the ZIP code of the building, and the economizer will automatically set the high-limit shutoff values as required in the latest energy codes.You can visually verify the climate zone and the high-limit value set by the ZIP code. (see how easy it is)

The ZIP Economizer is also equipped with other energy saving and system projection features and meets all the latest economizer control code requirements.

Latest Code Economizer Requirements

  • 100% Outside Air – Economizers shall modulate and have the capability to provide up to 100% of supply air with outdoor air when needed to meet the cooling load.
  • Pressure Relief – Means of relieving the additional outside air shall be provided to prevent building over-pressurization. Typically provided by a barometric damper or powered exhaust.
  • Integrated Cooling – which is to provide mechanical cooling with Free Cooling with the damper remaining at 100% outdoor air position and requires a 2 stage thermostat to comply.
  • Class 1 Motorized Dampers – Dampers shall have leakage no greater than 4cfm/ft2 in accordance with AMCA 500D and tested and labeled by an approved agency.
  • Economizer Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) – requiring an advanced digital economizer control providing system information, status, and fault notification.


An Approach to Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings - PNNL- 24979

Small HVAC Problems and Potential Savings Reports

International Code Council

Tags: Technical Tips

ASHRAE Supplier Sponsor Webinar on Dynamic Balancing

Posted on Tue,Aug 23, 2016 @ 09:00 PM


Pressure Independent Valves offer system stability, improved efficiency and overall versatility that can only be achieved in a dynamically balanced hydronic system. During this webinar you will learn how partial loads can wreak havoc on statically balanced systems and how static balancing devices under perform the majority of the time. See how pressure independent valves can keep your system balanced at all loads and flow, eliminate overflows, and achieve perfect valve authority.

Join us on Thursday, September 15th at 11:00AM PDT / 2:00PM EDT as Dick Hubbell, Regional Application Consultant for Belimo America discusses why design and modeling data doesn't always match a building’s actual performance.

Energy and performance models make a few faulty assumptions about hydronic performance. By understanding these assumptions, we can have a better view of actual performance. This presentation will examine the performance impact of improper valve sizing, unstable system pressures and balancing device selection. We will also examine the physical effects of valve authority and coil degradation in hydronic systems.
In this session we will discuss:

  • Design and Modeling Assumptions

  • Hydronic Heat Transfer at the Coil

  • Hydronic Performance Problems

  • Valve Sizing

  • Static vs. Dynamic Balancing

  • Coil Performance

  • Optimize Potential Performance Solutions

Register Now.

Tags: Online Learning Resources & Tools, Belimo News, Technical Tips

Belimo Highlights: National Conference on Building Commissioning

Posted on Fri,Jun 19, 2015 @ 10:00 AM

2015 National Conference on Building Commissioning (NCBC); “Gateway to the Future of Commissioning”; is designed by the Building Commissioning (Cx) Association (BCA) to advance state-of-the-art building commissioning and the professionals within a forum for sharing the cost-effective processes for optimizing building performance, reducing energy use, and improving indoor air quality, occupancy comfort, and productivity.

At this year’s national conference William ‘Bill’ McMullen, President, Business Unit Manager, Energy Solutions, Dewberry announces that the BCA will be launching a University. The university is in the development stages and more information will be released online when it comes available.

Big Data was a central theme of this year conference.  A highlight of a few of the sessions covered:

The Value of Submeter Data in Energy Information Systems Implementations: Andrea Salazar, Senior Engineer at EMI Consulting 

Our industry is evolving with the use of the internet to allow for Energy Information Systems (EIS) to develop instant access to information such as fuel cost, weather, and sub metered data to enable us to make smarter operating decisions for lower cost and more efficient building operation. 

Previous research into benefits of sub metering indicated:

  • Energy Reduction 5%-46%
  • Cost $0.02-$0.25 per sq. ft.
  • Simple Payback 10 Months – 3.5 years

A recent study was conducted by EMI Consulting referencing 27 commercial buildings with EIS.  The results indicate more sub metering (data) = more savings. When energy is metered at the building, system, and equipment level and integrated with sensors and building automation systems, the savings were measured up to 20% (Building + System + Equipment + Sensors + BAS Integration = 20%). Even more enlightening is that a higher level of integration resulted in lower incremental cost. However, technology and systems are new so cost/benefit is still evolving.

Lawrence Berkley National Lab (LBNL) hosts a site of EIS tools and research located at The LBNL has worked with the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy to evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings.  This website covers all prior, recent and current LBNL work in energy information systems and types of performance monitoring and analysis technologies. The site also contains links to project-specific pages documenting DOE and CEC-funded work from 2008 to present, links to research publications, and presentations.

CX Mission Critical Facilities for Safety and Resiliency: Rachel Rueckert, PE, LEED-AP, QCxP and; Dave Guberud, QCxP, Ring & DuChateau, LLP

This presentation provided an in-depth understanding of resiliency including related threats and underlying principles. Commissioning of mission critical facilities for safety and resiliency is important in keeping the critical space at varying degrees of negative pressure. This requires not only a well-controlled and sealed air distribution system, but also envelopes that can pass a variety of tests.  The ability of measuring direction of flow, redundancy of systems, and quick and tight damper control are some of the important HVAC functions.

Data Analysis in the Cx Process: Ryan Stroupe, PG&E Pacific Energy Center; and William E. Koran, PE, Director of Energy Analytics, Northwrite, Inc.

We were introduced to two different but powerful tools that enhance the visualization of measured building data to enable identification of proper operating trends and areas for improvements that can save energy.  Both of these tools, ECAM and Universal Translator are free to download and use. 

ECAM is a Microsoft Excel®-based tool that facilitates the examination of energy information from buildings and reduces the time spent analyzing utility meter data and system operational data. Starting from time-series data, ECAM automates a wide array of charting and analysis functionality to provide the ability to complete pre and post energy efficiency project regression analyses of utility interval meter data against outdoor air temperature. ECAM offers additional applications that can be used independently: analysis of a building’s load profile, creating per-square-foot metrics of building energy use, and developing scatter charts based on occupancy or time of day. These applications can ultimately be used to better understand a building’s energy use patterns and inform the selection of energy efficiency measures with the highest potential for savings. Learn more online at

The Universal Translator (UT) is a tool that was developed for building energy maintenance professionals that allows a Cx agent to take measured data and normalize it and put it in nice graphical form. The program is for anyone who works with “real world” data. Problem data might be data that comes from different data loggers where the clocks are not synchronized or from data loggers that recorded at different intervals. Calibration errors might be another source. The UT also has additional analysis functions to help analyze data. It includes modules to analyze economizers, light and plug loads, equipment runtime and set point analysis. Spending hours with a spreadsheet trying to take problem data and make it into something usable is a real task. The UT could save hours of work.

"Big Data", Better Choices: Data Tools for EBCx Impact: Terry Bickham, CEM, LEED AP, CDSM,CSDP; Director, Energy Services and Solutions, TraneCost of Ownership

Continuing the topic of visualizing “Big Data”, Terry Bickham of Trane presented how visualization of data can communicate opportunities for optimization of operation to reduce building operating cost.  Data from the National Institute of Building Sciences(NIBS) indicate in the life cycle expenses of a building operating costs account for 60-85%  compared to 5-10% for construction. 

A study by LBNL indicates opportunity to save energy as the building gets older using retro commissioning, ongoing commissioning, operational optimization, and analytics of available data.  Available data displayed to building occupants can be used as behavior modification resulting in lower energy use.  LBNL scientists are also developing methods of applying Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to rapidly diagnose problems in buildings and inform human operators what needs to be fixed before they turn into bigger problems. The ultimate differentiator is in maintenance gains and setting building professionals up to further optimize performance. Many of the same visualization techniques can be applied to the ongoing operation. Combining visualization with automated analytics allows for ongoing commissioning at a glance – simple, sustainable, and with measurable impact.

NCBC chart

The Future in Fire Protection and Life Safety Cx: David LeBlanc, PE, SFPE, Vice President, Jensen Hughes

In this session, discussions on the development and relevance of two new NFPA standards (NFPA 3: Recommended Practice for Commissioning of Fire Protection and Life Safety Systems) and (NFPA 4: Standard for Integrated Fire Protection and Life Safety System Testing).  These standards were developed in response from a request from the NIBS for standardized methods to commissioning and test Fire Protection Systems to ensure performance in conformity with the design intent.

The NFPA 3 outlines the commissioning process and integrated testing of fire protection and life safety systems, to ensure systems perform in conformity with the design intent. NFPA 3 address the recommended practice which covers procedures, methods, and documentation, giving stakeholders a reliable way to verify that active and passive safety systems are optimized to function as intended. It also defines a commissioning team and spells out qualifications for team members. The next edition of this standard is now open for Public Input (formerly proposals).

The NFPA 4 standard provides the minimum requirements for testing of integrated fire protection and life safety systems where such testing is required by governing laws, codes, regulations, or standards. This standard would not provide requirements for the testing of individual systems. The standard would apply to new and existing systems. Free access to the 2015 edition of NFPA 4 (registration required).

Throughout the conference additional Cx advancement in building codes were mentioned.  Here is a highlight of changes forthcoming. The International Code Council (ICC) incorporated System Commissioning Requirements in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2012 section 408).  Buildings with total cooling capacity greater than 480,000 BTUs and heating capacity greater than 600,000 BTUs (exception: simple unitary systems serving dwelling units in hotels, motels, and similar) will need to have a commissioning plan, testing adjusting and balancing (TAB) of air and hydronic systems, functional performance testing of equipment, controls, and economizers. The ICC is developing a standard for commissioning (ICC 1000) and completed its first public draft review this spring. ICC 1000 first draft is available for download.

Tags: Belimo News, Technical Tips

Improving Chilled Beam Performance and Cost-Effectiveness

Posted on Tue,Jun 02, 2015 @ 10:00 AM

In recent years, sustainability and efficiency have made their way to the forefront of building design.  More so now than ever, owners and contractors are looking to take advantage of the most advanced climate control systems in an effort to lower energy costs, maximize space, and ensure the safe and comfortable use of their structure for many years to come.

The use of chilled beams, in particular, has become a highly popular method of achieving these goals. Originally built to take the place of passive radiant cooling ceiling systems, they provide designers and engineers with the ability to make the most out of their space by dramatically reducing bulky supply and return air ductwork to the minimum size required to meet your ventilation requirements. Heating and cooling loads are served with smaller water pipes and more efficient hydronic systems.

Chilled beams are an intelligent option for both new buildings and retrofits alike; and when used in conjunction with other state-of-the-art technologies like Belimo’s 6-way Characterized Control Valve (CCV), they help reduce life-cycle costs and improve climate-controlling capabilities in structures of nearly all shapes and sizes.

The Belimo 6-way CCV is designed specifically for chilled beams and radiant ceilings. It can perform change over and modulating control for a single coil in a 4-pipe system with functionality equivalent to that of up to four 2-way control valves. This represents significant savings in terms of space, material, and installation time.

Belimo CCV’s innovative ball design features hydraulically decoupled heating and cooling circuits, which means that each sequence is controlled individually by the rotary movement of a single actuator. As a result, one valve can support a coil with two different Cv values.

In addition to substantially reducing wiring requirements, the use of only one actuator6-way characterized control valve simplifies building management system controls and enhances the ability of operators to manage indoor conditions. The 6-way valve is also highly compact and offers a 0% leakage in the closed position, helping prevent energy losses and reducing operating costs.

Using a single 6-way control valve to support chilled beam applications results in reduced installation requirements and minimal labor costs, and in the building sector where lean construction is becoming increasingly important, this is highly advantageous.

Through all of its innovative features, the Belimo 6-way control valve can serve as a highly economical addition to chilled beam applications in a wide range of building designs, and as more and more owners and contractors look for new and effective ways to cut costs and improve the environmental-friendliness of their structure, technologies like it will become increasingly prominent.

Download 6-way Product Brochure or go online to learn more.




Tags: Product Review, Green Building Technology, Technical Tips

Practical Tips to Achieve Excellence in Air and Water Control

Posted on Tue,Nov 11, 2014 @ 10:00 AM

When control loops are not properly tuned, actuators may fail prematurely, and the system can provide poor temperature or flow control.

Three conditions are usually caused by poor control loop tuning: oscillation, hunting, and dithering. Oscillation is constant changes in position. Hunting is wide, constant swings in control signal. Dithering is small, sometimes imperceptible changes in signal. For floating actuators, the time and frequency of the pulse, rather than signal voltage, is the control output but the result is the same.

Oscillating control loops caused by being over sensitive can result in more than a million actuator movements in just a few years and can cause actuator failures. In sluggish control loops, actuator movement does not occur or is too small to affect flow, resulting in extreme system overshoot and comfort problems.

There is an easy trade-off between tight control and a reasonable number, and size, of actuator movements. Space temperature changes occur slowly in a stable process. When a room fills with people, it takes about 5 minutes for a 1 degree temperature change to occur. It may take another 5 minutes for a wall sensor to register the change. Fast movements of the actuator are not necessary.

Mixed air control is also a very stable process. Rapid changes in outdoor air temperature or average return air temperatures are rare. On the other hand, discharge air temperature control with a hot water or chilled water valve is a fast process because the sensor is close to the coil.  A bare averaging thermistor sensor may respond in 30 seconds to a 1-degree change. Encapsulated sensors may take 2 minutes.

During start-up of a system, more actuator movements may be necessary to find the correct operating condition, but the space is not occupied and there is time to stabilize the system without fast actuator responses. In an ideal control loop, each actuator movement is productive.

Proportional constants (and also integral and derivative) should be set so that continuous oscillation of actuators does not occur. Actuator movement should not occur before the effects of previous movements have had time to affect the sensor. This may be 10 minutes for a space sensor or 1 minute for an air sensor. Movement of damper or valve actuator when air temperature is within .5 degrees of set point, or when mixed-air is within 1 degree of set point usually will yield stable control; attempts to achieve more precise control may result in unstable control and excessive actuator movement.

When 3-point floating control is used, the total run-time of the actuator should be entered into the program logic. When the actuator is at either the fully open or fully closed position, continual pulsing of actuator against end-stops (end-stop dithering) should not occur. The actuator should either stop and hold or drive continuously against the end-stop.

Each VAV box and actuator control loop should be individually tuned. Where high turbulence in the sensor flow control loop is causing dithering (rapid oscillation) of the actuator control loop, the sensor loop should be corrected mechanically or with software averaging. Where the control loop is not fully adjustable, it may be necessary to find a method unique to the individual controller.

If an actuator is “chasing” a process which occurs faster than the actuator movements are able to correct, as may occur in the situation described above, the result will be many more actuator movements than are necessary to affect flow. The average flow should be adjusted, but turbulence is normal and should be ignored.


Potential Problems:
  • Hunting: wide oscillations
  • Dithering: small, unproductive movements of the actuator
  • End-Stop Dithering: the actuator or damper is at the end of its rotation, but the control loop continues to pulse.
Possible Solutions:
  • Reduce the proportional or integral gain.
  • Use a deadband.
  • Add time delay.
  • Reset constants.
  • Shut down control when at end-stops.
  • Do not control process faster than components response.

Tags: Technical Tips

A Stand Alone Handheld Tool for Field Programming of Actuators

Posted on Tue,Oct 21, 2014 @ 10:00 AM

The ZTH US is a simple diagnostics and testing tool used with Belimo actuators offering a series of powerful diagnostic functionalities: function test, position preset, test setpoint /actual value, test damper and valve position and verify flow. The ZTH tool eases system maintenance and achieves maximum operational reliability.

The ZTH directly connects to the Belimo Multi-Function Technology (MFT) series actuator offers you access to the MFT parameters. MFT is a programmable actuator that allows you to create HVAC Actuator Programmingcustom solutions for individual applications. If you need a particular control or feedback signal, or need to change running speeds, MFT is the answer.  It comes standard as a 2 to 10 VDC proportional control but can be reprogrammed on-site. You can modify voltage control, time proportional control, floating point, on/off and feedback signals too. In addition, MFT makes it easy to set parameters for running time, mechanical working range, address, status and diagnostics.

The ZTH also allows users to connect the actuator to their personal computer when using the Belimo PC-Tool software. Connecting to the PC-Tool software enables you to customize the actuator, conduct functional tests and provides the ability to chart trends and operations.

Tags: Technical Tips, Multi-Function Technology

Are Pressure Independent Valves a Good Solution for Water Source Heat Pump Application?

Posted on Tue,Oct 07, 2014 @ 10:00 AM

In a Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP) application, water distribution is accomplished either of two ways: variable speed pumping or constant speed pumping. The decision to use one over the other is usually made based on who has the most convincing argument. Because of the simplistic nature of a heat pump, the basic function of valves is to allow a predetermined volume of water to enter each unit through either a water-to-refrigerant coil, water-to-air coil, or a water-to-water coil. These valves are not required to control the amount of flow as in a traditional HVAC hydronic system.  Instead, they are on/off controlled to allow full design flow when the WSHP starts.

What are the benefits?
A Pressure Independent Characterized Control Valve (PICCV) dynamically balances a system by responding to changes in differential pressure. The PICCV regulator modulates in response to differential pressures in the system to maintain a constant differential pressure across the ball of the valve. The PICCV will maintain a constant flow at part load and during morning start-up when all loops become critical. With the PICCV, each terminal gets the required flow, no overflow or underflow at this critical time. The PICCV allows a mechanic to easily commission additional circuits after the initial system is up and running, again thanks to dynamic balancing capability. The PICCV is available in flow rates from .5 to 100 GPM. Choosing the right PICCV is as easy as determining the appropriate flow for your heat pump and then choosing the valve that satisf es the flow requirement.

How does it work?
The PICCV is ideally suited to save pumping cost associated with water source heat pumps. The PICCV with On/Off control actuator is used to isolate the zone coil from the main hydronic circuit when the space is not calling for heating or cooling. Hydronic friction is reduced and when the system pump is controlled with a VFD, the flow is matched to the load of the building. This combination of PICCV and VFD saves pumping energy 90% of the time when the building load is less than full. The PICCV is available with integral -S travel switch models. The switch is wired in series with the compressor enable circuitry to assure water is f owing through the coil before the compressor starts.

Water Source Heat Pump Isolation Valve

Learn more, down pressure independent valves technical documentation.

Tags: Pressure Independent Valves, Technical Tips

Setting up an Economizer Webinar

Posted on Tue,Sep 02, 2014 @ 10:00 PM

Economizer RTU

In this 30 minute webinar, you will learn how to set up an economizer to match the specific climate zone profiles, and code requirements of different regions. We will also provide an overview on the different economizing strategies, how maximize energy savings and how the ZIP Economizer eliminates the guess work of code compliance, and ensures you are automatically set up.

No registration needed. Just click on this link on September 17th at 11:00 am EST.

Tags: Online Learning Resources & Tools, Technical Tips

Modulating Control of Fire & Smoke Dampers in Smoke Control

Posted on Tue,Aug 19, 2014 @ 10:00 AM

In the US, Canada, and Latin America fire, smoke, and combination fire and smoke dampers are used in two general categories:
  1. Containment of fire and/or smoke to maintain building compartmentation. These are installed based on Chapter 7 of the International Building Code (IBC) which is the primary model code. These are sometimes referred to as passive systems although the dampers do close and fire alarms operate when a smoke detector operates.
  2. Engineered smoke control systems use dampers, fans, and some architectural features in a wide variety of applications. These are based on Chapter 9 of the IBC.

In the Americas smoke dampers are always actuated; fire dampers use mechanical means of sensing heat (fusible links that melt and gravity or spring release for closure). They and can be actuated for ease of periodic inspection and maintenance. Smoke must be sensed using electrical sensing – smoke detectors. Spring return actuators are used to close the dampers and then the actuator motor used to open the damper. Combination fire and smoke dampers are actuated due to the smoke function.

Many smoke control applications require modulating control of dampers. Stairwell pressurization and underfloor air-conditioning are examples where they can be utilized.

In this article the common control methods for fire and smoke dampers (typically Chapter 7 applications) are described in order to help distinguish among applications. Then modulating control of the same dampers in different applications (typically Chapter 9 applications) is discussed and explained.

Containment fire and smoke damper controls
Figure 1 shows (from left to right) a duct smoke detector, high temperature switch,[1]  and actuated damper. Roughly 80% of fire and smoke dampers are installed this way although the smoke sensing may be via area smoke detection and a relay employed to operate the damper. The damper protects the integrity of the wall to maintain compartmentation so that neither smoke nor fire can pass to an adjacent compartment.

Figure 1 Typical installation of a combination fire and smoke containment damper

Figure 1 Typical installation of a combination fire and smoke containment damper.

Figure 2 shows the wiring. Starting at the far left, hot power is run to the smoke detector. As long as smoke is not present the detector passes power to the temperature switch. Power to the actuator drives the damper open and holds it in the open position.

If smoke is detected power is removed from the actuator and the alarm contact on the detector closes to issue an alarm. If an area smoke detection system is used, the smoke control system has a relay connected in place of the smoke detector contact.
In case smoke is not detected but the temperature at the damper rises to 165°F (74°C), then the temperature responsive switch opens. This cuts power to the actuator and the damper springs closed. The temperature switch is manual reset so the damper remains closed during the event.

In the cases where the damper is only a smoke damper, the temperature switch is not present. The smoke detector or a relay from the smoke control system is the only operating control.
Figure 2 Smoke detector and combination fire and smoke damper wiring

Figure 2 Smoke detector and combination fire and smoke damper wiring.


Engineered Smoke Control System Dampers
Roughly 80% of fire and smoke dampers are installed in containment applications as shown above. About 20% are installed in more customized applications that are designed by the fire protection and mechanical engineers. Typical applications are atria, stairwell pressurization systems, underfloor air conditioning, underground floors, and large spaces like malls, auditoriums, and stages.

Figure 3 shows the basic controls employed in a smoke control system for one damper. The Fire fighters’ Smoke Control System (FSCS) panel allows override control and provides status indication for all components of the system.

Figure 3 FSCS panel and remote smoke damper wiring
Figure 3 FSCS panel and remote smoke damper wiring.

The dampers used for smoke control are typically of the same construction as containment. The primary difference is in the control methods. The damper blade position indication switches may be auxiliary switches on the actuator, damper blade switches, or magnetic contact switches. The smoke control system has a relay that allows the FSCS panel switches to place it in automatic, closed, or open position. Figure 3 also shows the connections to a networked system. The relays or cards are isolated from the line or 24V power used to operate the actuator.

The smoke control system components are UL 864, UUKL listed. The actuator has UL 873 or UL 60730 electrical listing and UL 2043 low smoke generation listings. The damper and actuator as a unit is UL555S listed.

Figure 4 shows a reopenable damper. Wiring for the Auto-Off-On Override switch is shown connected directly to the FSCS panel although typically there are network relays present to perform the functions. This damper serves both in containment and smoke control functions. It is connected to the FSCS panel so that the fire department incident commander can reopen the damper to remove smoke or pressurize a space. Status indication is provided.

Figure 4 Reopenable damper

Figure 4 Reopenable damper.

Sequence of Operation
In Automatic mode the smoke relay responds to the programming of the control panel to cut power and spring the damper closed when appropriate. Alternately, if a fire is present and the temperature in the duct rises to 165°F (74°C) the primary temperature switch opens and the damper springs closed.

If the panel switch is moved to Override, then the smoke relay and primary sensor are bypassed. The actuator is again powered and the damper opens. However, if the temperature at the damper continues to rise then the secondary sensor opens at 250°F (121°C). (The fire is close enough that there is danger of flames or heat moving through the damper to the other side of the wall.)

In addition, if the fire department moves the switch on the FSCS panel to Off, then power is removed from the actuator and the damper closes.

Modulating Control System Dampers
Some systems require proportional control of the dampers in the fire and smoke applications discussed above. The controls must combine typical temperature and/or pressure control methods as well as fire and smoke functions.

Figure 5 shows the simplest of modulating control methods for a fire and smoke damper. It is used commonly for corridor ventilation. The potentiometer sets a balance position for the damper during normal operation. The relay can close the damper in event of fire avoid smoke spread.

Power is placed on the actuator terminals 1 and 2. The potentiometer has a varying signal of from 2 to 10VDC that goes to terminal 3, the signal input. The actuator positions from 0 to 100% to open the damper to the balanced position. The common acts as a source of electrons and carries both AC and DC currents. In an event, the Override relay can cut power to the actuator which then springs the damper closed.

Figure 5 Potentiometer control of a smoke damper with override closed

Figure 5 Potentiometer control of a smoke damper with override closed.

Figure 6 shows the same smoke damper as in Figure 4 with an added relay to override the damper open. By shorting hot power to terminal 3 of the actuator, it will drive open. While not always necessary, a contact opens to disconnect the signal terminal on the potentiometer. This prevents hot 24VAC from damaging the signal output. On DDC systems this is important.

There are optional wiring configurations that work just as well as that shown. For example, Override relay 2 could be placed in the common 24VAC wire. At times it is important to arrange the relay contacts so that in case of failure of one relay, the failsafe condition is the safest.

Figure 6 Potentiometer control of a smoke damper with override open or closed

Figure 6 Potentiometer control of a smoke damper with override open or closed

In Figure 7 instead of a minimum potentiometer controlling the actuator, a building automation system, direct digital control sends the signal to terminal 3 and the actuator is continuously adjustable. (Default is 2V, closed and 10V, full open. This is reversible when needed for some applications.) The signal path is from Sig + on the controller to 3 through the actuator electronics to 1 and back out to the controller Com. A complete loop is always needed for current flow out and into any device.

Figure 7 Typical analog 2-10VDC actuator control circuit

Figure 7 Typical analog 2-10VDC actuator control circuit.

Figure 8 adds a high temperature switch. It is shown here in the common wire, but could be placed in the hot wire also. If the temperature at the damper rises to 165°F (74°C) the switch opens to cut power to the actuator and it springs the damper closed.

Figure 8 Control of a fire and smoke damper showing high temperature switch

Figure 8 Control of a fire and smoke damper showing high temperature switch.

Normally, the damper modulates based on the output signal from the BAS controller. Typically, if smoke is detected, the automatic response is to make Override relay 2 and spring the damper closed. If the FSCS panel is set to Open, then Override relay 2 is de-energized and Override relay 1 is energized. The damper is then open 100%. However, if the temperature in the duct going into the damper reaches 165°F (74°C), then the damper again closes.

Figure 9 adds a secondary high temperature switch and a bypass relay in the common wire.

Figure 9 Reopenable combination fire and smoke damper

Figure 9 Reopenable combination fire and smoke damper.

The sequence of operation is as follows:

With 24VAC present and all controls in the normal[2] state, the actuator opens damper to the position the Signal indicates. Actuator will modulate to maintain the setpoint.

Cutting 24VAC power or making Override relay 2 closes the damper.

If the temperature at the damper reaches 165°F (74°C), the primary sensor opens and the damper springs closed.

If the FSCS panel switch is set to Open, several actions occur.

a. The primary sensor is bypassed reconnecting the common power to the actuator.

b. Override relay 1 is made and Override relay 2 goes to normal. This causes the actuator to drive full open. (Hot 24VAC is shorted to the actuator terminal. Hot 24VAC is not allowed to reach Signal of DDC controller as that would destroy the output’s electronics.)

However, if the duct temperature reaches 250°F (121°C), then the secondary temperature switch opens and the damper again closes. The FSCS panel cannot override this and manual reset is necessary. It is presumed that the fire is too close to the damper and compartmentation is at risk.

Underfloor Air Conditioning Example
Figure 10 shows an example of an underfloor air conditioning system and how a modulating actuator could function.

The shaft wall is a fire barrier and a smoke partition and therefore requires either separate dampers or a combination fire and smoke damper. The pressure under the floor must be maintained at somewhere between 0.05 and 0.10 in. w.c. (12 to 25 Pa). This would require another damper and modulating actuator. However, by using a modulating fire and smoke damper, only one damper and actuator can do the job of three. This saves material and labor costs and also helps alleviate space constraints.

Figure 10 Underfloor air conditioning example

Figure 10 Underfloor air conditioning example.

It would be up to the fire protection engineer and the local authority having jurisdiction to determine if this damper is considered part of containment (Chapter 7) or part of the engineered smoke control system (Chapter 9). It could be used for both. If it is part of the smoke control also, then status indication and overrides would be required.

The sequence of operation is:

  • During normal operation the pressure under the floor is maintained by modulating the damper mounted in the shaft wall.
  • If a fire occurs and the temperature at the damper reaches 165°F (74°C), then the damper closes.
  • If smoke is present in duct (or space area), then damper closes.

There are a large number of methods to modulate fire and smoke dampers and apply fire and smoke safety controls. In containment applications, the damper is closed when either high temperatures or smoke is observed. In smoke control systems a number of ways exist to either open or close the damper to purge or pressurize spaces to prevent smoke from spreading.

Some, not all, of the methods of control are shown and explained in this article. Consult the referenced Codes and Standards or contact the author for additional information. 

Author - Larry Felker
Larry Felker is a mechanical engineer and member of ICC (International Code Council), NFPA (National Fire Protection Association), and a life member of ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration Air Conditioning Engineers). He is a Product Manager for Fire & Smoke Actuators for Belimo Americas who has specialized in fire and smoke dampers and actuators since 2002. Previously he was a temperature control system designer and before that a mechanical and electrical contractor. He is the co-author (with Travis Felker) of Dampers and Airflow Control, ASHRAE Special Publications, 2010.

(IBC) International Building Code, 2012, International Code Council, Inc. (ICC), Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795

(IFC) International Fire Code 2012, ICC, ibid.

(IMC) International Mechanical Code 2012, ICC, op. cit.

UL 555 Standard for Safety for Fire Dampers, Edition 7, 2006, Updated 2010, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL), 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096

UL 555S Standard for Safety for Smoke Dampers, 4th Edition, 1999, Updated 2012, ibid.

UL 864 Standard for Safety Control Units and Accessories for Fire Alarm Systems, 9th Edition, 2010

UL 873 Standard for Temperature-Indicating and -Regulating Equipment (Ed. 12), U, 2007

UL 2043 Fire Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release for Discrete Products and Their Accessories Installed in Air-Handling Spaces, Standard 2043, Edition 4, 2013

UL 60730 Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, 2010

[1] “Primary heat responsive device” in UL 555 terminology.

[2] “Normal” is defined as the de-energized or low variable condition. For example, low smoke is the normal condition.

Tags: Technical Tips, Fire and Smoke Control

A Method of Damper Control for Corridor Ventilation and Smoke Extraction

Posted on Tue,Aug 05, 2014 @ 10:00 AM


Corridors are typically a means of egress during fires or emergency events. During normal operation they require ventilation. In some code jurisdictions or building design requirements, pressurization or smoke extraction is also required.

This article presents several means to provide pressurization or smoke extraction with ventilation and details the operation of the controls, dampers, and actuators.

The operation of corridor smoke exhaust influences and is influenced by the other smoke control tactics in a fire and the fire protection and mechanical engineers model the airflows with respect to one another. Figure 1 shows a larger picture than just the corridors.

Fiqure 1 Elements in fire and smoke controlFiqure 1: Some of the strategic elements in fire and smoke control.

The model codes used in the United States and some other countries – International Building Code ((IBC 2012) and the International Fire Code (IFC 2012) along with the International Mechanical Code (IMC 2012) have various requirements for corridors in commercial buildings. The walls must be constructed as smoke partitions and in some cases as fire partitions. Minimum widths are established. Mechanical ventilation, travel distances, and other requirements are also covered. Chapter 4 of the IBC establishes requirements based on occupancy type. Chapter 7 details the requirements with respect to structure. Chapter 9 details the active or engineered system

All smoke control equipment status must be indicated on the fire-fighter’s smoke control system (FSCS) panel. This includes smoke control dampers (IFC 909.16.1). Control of all smoke control equipment must be possible from the FSCS (IFC 909.16.2) with the exception of complex systems where other provisions are allowed.

Smoke Extraction
In corridors there are jurisdictions and individual projects where corridor damper and fan systems are required to clear the corridor of smoke and prevent spread to adjacent floors. Since ventilation is also required, the two functions must be coordinated. This can be achieved with dedicated or common (non-dedicated) equipment.

Either a “sandwich” or “building” pressurization type of approach is usually used. See Figure 2.

In a sandwich pressurization system –

a) The corridors on the fire floor are negative with the fan pulling smoke out of the floor. (Supply closed, return or exhaust open fully.)

b) The floors above and below the fire floor are pressurized more than other floors. (Supply fully open, exhaust off or closed.)

c) The corridors on other floors of the building operate normally. (Typically partially open supplies and exhausts.)

In a building pressurization system approach –
a) The corridors on the fire floor are negative with the fan pulling smoke out of the floor.

b) All other floors operate normally. They are under a positive pressure with ventilation air. Since the fire floor is very negative, the difference in pressure is large enough to prevent smoke spread to the non-fire floors.

BuildingSystem resized 600

Figure 2: “Building” vs. “sandwich” pressurization system.

Figure 2, shows the overall concept of a non-dedicated system – the ducts move ventilation air under normal circumstances and are used for smoke control only in an emergency. However, variations are common in corridor systems as there are a number of ways to achieve the goals. Among the possible methods are:

a) Two rooftop fans (supply and exhaust) and separate ducts to the corridors.

b) One reversible fan that delivers ventilation air in normal operation and exhausts air during an event. In this case there are other provisions for make-up air, reliefs or local exhausts. Various factors influence the approach that is best. All pressures – positive or negative – due to stack effect; lobbies, elevators, or natural ventilation, or attached rooms and spaces are considered.

c)  If there is sufficient make-up air elsewhere, an exhaust fan alone may be used to move air out of the corridor. No supply fan.

See Figures 3 and 4 for drawings of the two approaches. Figure 5 shows a vertical representation of a high-rise corridor duct system in a multistory building. The point is that the same duct feeds or draws from all of the dampers. The system must be balanced in order to provide the correct amount of ventilation air on each floor. When a fire event occurs, the air flow requirements change.


Figure 3: Separate supply and exhaust ducts in a corridor.

Figure 4

Figure 4: Single duct serves as supply and smoke exhaust in a corridor.

Figure 5

Figure 5: Fan and ducts in 10 story building.

The pressure at the discharge of the fan is higher than at the bottom of the building. However, the required quantity of air going through each damper is the same during normal operation.

The damper at the top of the building will be open much less than that at the bottom of the building. Even with careful calculations to use different sizes of dampers, balancing will be needed to get the correct flow through each damper. In addition to pressure losses in the duct and across the dampers, local exhausts and some stack effect will cause variations that cannot be precisely calculated. The goal will be to have the furthest damper full open to use the least fan energy while delivering the right amount of ventilation air on every floor.

The fan sequence for each of the cases above is straightforward. With the Figure 3 two duct system both the ventilation supply fan and exhaust fan are on when occupied (or optimizing or under control of an air quality sensor). If a fire alarm activates or smoke is detected during unoccupied periods, the fans are turned on again. This is the same for both sandwich and pressurization systems. At the same time the stairwell pressurization system is activated and alarms are issued. This is beyond the scope of this article.

If using the Figure 4 geometry, then the fan is on and supplying air during normal occupied times. In event of a fire, the fan goes to the reverse air flow direction – exhaust mode.

Any individual damper in either type of system must perform several functions. These dampers can be parallel blade (PB) or opposed blade (OB). In most cases an OB will have more accurate resolution for setting minimum position and full open the flow is the same for either type.

The dampers must be UL 555S (UL 555S) listed as smoke dampers (IFC 909.10.4). In some cases the damper must also be a fire damper that meets UL 555 (UL 555) as well so combination fire and smoke dampers would be required. Most corridor walls must be fire rated. However, if the fire damper function could interfere with the smoke control system operation, then installation of a fire damper is not required (IBC 717.2.1).

The actuated damper operation will be similar for all cases. Here we will discuss the detailed operation for only the Figure 3 supply and return duct case in a sandwich pressurization system.

Normal operation. Both supply and exhaust dampers open to a minimum position. Balancing dampers in series with the smoke control dampers cannot be used. They would block some flow when the damper went to 100%.

In event of a fire:

Fire floor
a) Supply damper closes so that smoke is not pushed into other areas.

b) Exhaust damper opens 100% to remove smoke.

c) In some cases the dampers are also fire dampers and will close if temperature inside damper frame reaches 165°F. The FSCS panel has override switches to reopen the damper with a secondary sensor to again close damper if the temperature reaches 250°F. This is discussed below.

Floors immediately adjacent to fire floor
a) Supply damper opens 100% to pressurize and restrict smoke entry

b) Exhaust damper closes 100%

All other floors
a) Dampers remain in normal operation

b) Variations do exist

Belimo FSAF24-BAL Solution
Figure 6 shows a corridor damper with the FSAF24-BAL. Several manufacturers produce similar products. Not shown is the front grill. The damper is installed in the corridor wall and the actuator provides the sequence needed for ventilation and smoke control. The actuator is three position – closed, adjustable mid-position, or open 100%. Figure 7 shows operation.


Figure 6: Ruskin FSD60-FA-BAL

Fire and Smoke Damper


With no power the actuator springs closed – unoccupied, fire present at damper, or smoke control stop air flow.

With 24V on wire 2, the actuator opens to the balancing position as set by the potentiometer on the face – this is the normal operation ventilation air position. Each actuator is set at a different potentiometer position as balancer measures flow.

When wire 3 receives 24V the actuator opens 100%. – full pressurization or smoke exhaust mode.

These are the positions needed for the corridor ventilation and smoke control.

Figure 7

Figure 7: Detail of FSAF24-BAL.

Smoke control system program mapped to actuator function

The sequence detailed above under dampers can be mapped against the needed actuator operation and programmed into the smoke control system panel as shown below.

Normal operation:  Wire 2 is powered, damper in ventilation position.

Fire floor
a) Supply damper:   No power, damper closes.
b) Exhaust damper:   Wire 3 powered to open damper 100%.
c) For fire dampers Wire 1, common, is always connected unless the primary sensor opens. See Figure 8 description.

Floor(s) immediately adjacent to fire floor
a) Supply damper:  Wire 3 powered to open damper.
b) Exhaust damper:  No power, damper closes.

All other floors
:  Wire 2 is powered.

Figure 8, adds more detail to how the damper is controlled. (Note that there are other wiring variations not covered here. For example the secondary sensor could be between the Override relay and wire 3.) A smoke damper would have neither the 165°F high temperature primary sensor nor the 250°F secondary senor.

Figure 8

Figure 8: Control of FSAF24-BAL-S actuator.

In Figure 8 the smoke relay is normally closed and power is delivered to the actuator. The damper drives to the minimum position setting.

Combination fire and smoke dampers have two t”emperature sensors (“heat responsive devices” per UL555) – primary and secondary. If the temperature rises to 165°F (74°C) the primary opens and the damper springs closed. It does not go to the potentiometer position since it does not have power. If the Override relay is made by intervention from the FSCS panel then wire 3 is energized. This bypasses the primary sensor. The damper then opens to the 100% position instead of the ventilation position.

If the temperature at the damper again rises and reaches 250°F (121°C), then the secondary sensor opens and damper springs closed and stays closed until manually reset.

To summarize:

By powering wires 1 and 2 with 24V the actuator drives the damper to the required position for ventilation.

By cutting power the actuator springs the damper closed.

By powering wires 1and 3 the actuator drives the damper 100% open regardless whether wire 2 has power or not.

Figure 9, shows the Fire Fighters’ Smoke Control System panel with indication lights that are given status by the auxiliary switches on the actuator. Each fan and damper has its own status lights and override switch. The signals for light indication at the panel are carried via the network from actuator auxiliary switches, damper blade switches, magnetic contact switches, or programmable actuator signals.

Exhaust Damper

Figure 9: Portion of Fire Fighters’ Smoke Control Panel.

Proportional actuator with Minimum position control

Another way to achieve the same sequence is provided by use of a proportional 2-10V actuator and an SGA24 minimum position switch.  This is a different actuator than the BAL shown above. It is a standard 2-10VDC control actuator.

The wiring schematic is shown in Figure 10. Figure 11 shows the minimum selector which can be used to set the mid-point balancing position of the actuator.

Figure 10

Figure 10: Proportional actuator controlled by minimum potentiometer.




Figure 11: Proportional minimum potentiometer




The sequence of operation of the wiring diagram in Figure 10 is as follows:

With no power on both Com and Hot, damper springs closed. This would be the typical unoccupied position. The “closed” auxiliary switch indicates the damper is closed and the network card transfers the position indication to the FSCS panel.

With power going to the SGA24 and actuator, the signal out of the SGA on 3 goes to the actuator input 3. (4 is not used in this sequence. It would allow modulating control of the damper in addition.) The 2-10 VDC signal positions the actuator and damper from zero to 90 degrees to be set by the balancing contractor.

If Override relay 1 makes 24V power is delivered to 3 of the actuator which causes it to drive full open. At the same time the 165°F sensor is bypassed. (The 250°F remains in the circuit as a final safety should fire be present too close to the wall.) This would open the damper fully if it is an exhaust on the fire floor or a supply on an adjacent floor.

If Override relay 2 makes, power is cut to 2 of the actuator and it springs closed. This would achieve needed closure of a supply on the fire floor or an exhaust on an adjacent floor in a sandwich pressurization system.

Thus the damper can be placed in closed, open, or partially open as needed for corridor smoke and ventilation control.

Figure 10 shows the primary and secondary sensors for a combination fire and smoke damper along with the override contact on Override relay 1. These are not present if the wall is not a fire barrier or partition requiring a damper. In that case the drawing in Figure 12 would accomplish the smoke damper functions for ventilation or open or closed as required. This is one example where the presence of sprinklers (that might derate the wall) works synergistically with the engineered smoke control system.

In Figure 12, when both relays are normal, the damper goes to its balancing position.

If the damper must open 100% for purge or pressurization, then Override relay 1 is made. Shorting hot to 3 of the actuator drives it full open.

If the damper must close then Override relay 2 makes. This cuts power and the actuator springs closed.

As in Figure 10, actuator auxiliary switches signal damper blade position to the FSCS panel.

Figure 12

Figure 12: Proportional control of a smoke damper by a minimum potentiometer.

Reversible Fan Ventilation and Smoke Removal

Where there is sufficient relief by local exhausts or return airs in adjacent areas, a reversible fan and only one duct run to all floors is possible. In some cases, a make-up air damper can provide for needed relief. A gravity relief damper is another possibility. This removes the need for a second duct and second damper on each floor. Figure 13 shows the concept.

Figure 13

Figure 13 Reversible fan for ventilation or smoke extraction as needed


A sandwich or building pressurization system approach can be used for corridor smoke control to facilitate egress during a fire or other event. The same duct(s) and damper(s) can be used for ventilation during normal occupancy periods.

There are a number of duct and damper choices available for corridor ventilation and smoke extraction. The Belimo FSAF24-BAL or the FSAFB24-SR with an SGA potentiometer can provide the different sequences of operation needed.


International Building Code, 2012, International Code Council, Inc. (ICC), Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795

International Fire Code 2012, ICC, ibid.

International Mechanical Code 2012, ICC, op. cit

UL 555 Standard for Safety for Fire Dampers, Edition 7, 2006, Updated 2010, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL), 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096

UL 555S Standard for Safety for Smoke Dampers, 4th Edition, 1999, Updated 2012, ibid.


Written by: Larry Felker, Mechanical Engineer and member of ICC (International Code Council), NFPA (National Fire Protection Association), and a life member of ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration Air Conditioning Engineers). He is a Product Manager for Fire & Smoke Actuators for Belimo Americas who has specialized in fire and smoke dampers and actuators since 2002. Previously he was a temperature control system designer and before that a mechanical and electrical contractor. He is the co-author (with Travis Felker) of Dampers and Airflow Control, ASHRAE Special Publications, 2010.

Tags: Technical Tips, Fire and Smoke Control